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# Torsion Springs

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 Parameters for torsion springs  Physical parametersd (wire diameter): This parameter describes the diameter of wire used as material for spring.Dd (Shaft): This parameter describes maximal diameter of spring shaft in industrial applications.Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).Di (internal diameter): Internal diameter of a spring. It can be calculated by subtracting the wire diameter multiplied by 2 from the external diameter of a spring. Internal diameter in torsion springs decreases while the spring is working even up to shaft diameter. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).De (external diameter): External diameter of a spring. It can be calculated by adding the wire diameter multiplied by 2 to the internal diameter of a spring. External diameter in torsion springs decrease while the spring is working. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2% with tolerance (+-) 0.1 mmL0 (Free Length): WARNING: Free Length decrease while spring is working. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).Ls (Leg Length): It is the distance from the center axis of the coil body to the end of the torsion springs' leg. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).An (Maximum angle): Maximum acceptable rotation angle for the spring in degrees. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15 degrees (indicative).Fn (Maximum force): Maximum acceptable force that can operate at the end of torsion springs' leg. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).Mn (Maximum torque): Maximum acceptable torque (Newton * mm). Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).R (Spring rate): This parameter determines spring's resistance, while it is working. It is measured in Newton * mm / degree. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).A1 & F1 & M1: (angle at torque or force) The following equation calculates the angle as a function of the torque: A1 = M1/R. In order to calculate the torque from the force, we use this equation: M = F*LsLeg position There are 4 types of torsion springs' leg positions: 0, 90 ,180 or 270 degrees (see picture above). Helix direction: A right-hand-wound spring loads in a counter-clockwise direction. A left-hand-wound spring loads in a clockwise direction. Both types are available in all sizes.Reference Number: All springs are identified by a unique reference: type . (De * 10) . (d * 100) . (N * 100) . For right-hand-wound springs, the type is a letter "D". For left-hand-wound springs, the type is a letter "G". "N" stands for the number of coils. Example: D.028.020.0350 is a right-hand-wound torsion spring with an external diameter of 2.8mm produced from 0.9mm stainless steel wire and having 3.5 coils.  MaterialsI (Inox steel): Inox 18/8 mark Z10 CN 18.09.  TolerancesLeg position: (+-)15 degreesLeg Length: (+-)3 %
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